عنوان مقاله [English]
Investigating the relationship of leadership style with organizational innovation of female sports teachers in Mashhad
Ramin Iraji Noghondar*: Ph.D in Sports Management Department, Payam Noor University, Tehran, Iran.
Maryam Pourjafarian: Secretary of Sports, Education, Khorasan Razavi, Mashhad, Iran
Introduction: he aim of the present study was to the relationship of leadership style with organizational innovation of female sports teachers in Mashhad.
Materials and methods: The statistical population of the research was made up of all female sports teachers in Mashhad, whose number is 540. Using Morgan's table and available sampling, the statistical sample size was estimated to be 225 teachers. In order to collect data, two questionnaires of leadership style (MLQ) and organizational innovation were used. The research method is descriptive and correlational based on the type of study that was carried out in the field. In order to analyze the data, descriptive indices and Kolmogorov Smironov's statistical tests, Pearson's correlation coefficient, regression analysis and path analysis were used.
Results and discussion: The results of this research showed that the average score of transformational leadership style was 80.32±8.52, pragmatic leadership style was 62.64±8.01 and impersonal leadership style was 11.41±4.2. The scores are above the average level. Also, the average score of organizational innovation among female sports teachers was 81.85±6.25, which shows that female sports teachers are at an acceptable level in terms of organizational innovation. The results of the analysis of the hypotheses of this research showed that in the structural model part of the research, while confirming the fit of the model by the ratio of X2 to df (2.7), the root mean square error is 0.073, and the smoothed goodness-of-fit index is 0.91. , comparative fit index 0.99, incremental fit index 0.96, fit index for evaluating the relative value of variance and covariance 0.92 and adjusted fit index 0.99, all factors can be integrated in the structural model of the research. The results indicated that the leadership style had a positive and significant effect (T-Value=5.21, r=0.01) on the organizational innovation of female sports teachers. The results of this research showed that there was a positive and significant relationship between transformational leadership style and organizational innovation (P = 0.009, r = 0.209), which is similar to the results of Noorna et al.'s research (2021). Matik (2022), Sarvar et al. (2022) and Kobajikan and Sumartik (2023) are consistent. In this regard, Mehdzir and Ghani (2022) reported with a qualitative approach that the leadership style has an effect on organizational innovation behavior. Also, Trison (2023) found out that there is a positive and significant relationship between transformational leadership style and innovation and competitive advantage by investigating employees of the railway industry. Albalushi et al. (2021) state that the exchange of knowledge and information in the organization affects innovation. If the managers' leadership style is transactional, it will lead to the development of innovative processes. Lali (2009) in a research titled transformational leadership, creativity and organizational innovation on 163 employees in entrepreneurial organizations in Turkey showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between transformational leadership and understanding of support for innovation and creativity. . People who use the transformational leadership style in their work try to manifest the qualities of creativity and innovation and sublime ideals such as freedom, justice, equality, peace and humanity around them. Based on Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs theory, this theory emphasizes on strengthening the higher needs of followers. Viktorija et al. (2021) found that leadership behaviors have a strong significant relationship with the occurrence of innovation in people. Since in transformational leadership, people can influence their peers and superiors as well as subordinates, it is suggested that sports teachers use this type of leadership style to create innovation in their skills and be able to be effective. have a great impact on students in the field of sports. Sports teachers can identify potential motivations among different people by applying transformational leadership style, and by discovering and cultivating these talents, they can take a useful step in the progress of physical education at the level of schools and students. Another finding of the research was that there was a positive and significant relationship between pragmatic leadership style and organizational innovation (P=0.003, r=0.235), which is in line with the results of Norna et al.'s research (2021). , Matik (2022) and Sarvarar et al. (2022) are consistent. Also, the results of the regression analysis showed that the pragmatic leadership style is qualified to predict organizational innovation. In this regard, Hans et al. (2018) stated that there is a positive relationship between pragmatic leadership style and the level of creativity. From the results of this research, it can be concluded that teachers who have sufficient freedom of action in carrying out creative activities and efforts, suitable research and financial facilities for innovative efforts, applying the results of creative activities and giving appropriate rewards to Creative people are causing the development and expansion of creativity and innovation. The results obtained from this research indicate that the pragmatic leadership style has acted in the direction of supporting new ideas and in some way in the direction of creating an environment that is suitable for the growth and nurturing of innovation, which is a necessity. It requires solutions to develop and promote the appropriate leadership style. The results showed that there is no significant relationship between uncharacteristic leadership style and organizational innovation (P = 0.659, r = -0.306), which is in line with the research results of Viktorija et al. (2021) and Kobajikan and Sumartik be In characterless leadership (non-intervention) it is leaving the followers free when the leader is not present or avoiding leading, which is actually considered the most inactive type of leadership in the spectrum of leadership. According to Dang et al. (2019), in this situation, the leader refrains from making decisions and delegates responsibilities, the motivation and satisfaction of the followers reaches the minimum and the foresight of the leader is lost. According to this finding, it is concluded that it is not possible to use the leadership style without characteristics to increase innovation, so it is suggested to the sports teachers not to use this type of leadership style in their work environment as much as possible. so as not to hinder their innovative thinking and performance. Finally, according to the findings of this research, it is suggested to sports teachers to use two styles of transformational and pragmatic leadership to increase the amount of innovation so that they can have tremendous effects on the performance and creation of new and new ideas in Create an organization environment. The results of Atan and Mahmoud's research (2019) indicated that transformational leaders have stronger performance compared to pragmatic leaders. Of course, it should always be kept in mind that relying solely on one type of leadership style can have unwanted and potentially damaging consequences. For example, pragmatic leadership without idealized influence, inspiration and consideration of people can reduce the motivation, satisfaction, ethics and effort of teachers in the school environment, which will hinder their optimal performance. Furthermore, if teachers lack the reputation or resources to meet the required rewards, pragmatic leadership will be ineffective. On the other hand, mere reliance on transformational leadership and weakness in providing rewards and guidance can create confusion and ambiguity among teachers. Therefore, based on the obtained results, it is suggested that sports teachers combine both transformational and pragmatic leadership styles, and as the full-fledged leadership model states, leaders can motivate, try and Increase follower satisfaction by using transformational leadership and rewarding pragmatic leadership. In this regard, education can strengthen transformational and pragmatic leadership, so it is suggested to education officials to pay special attention to this category so that they can increase the incidence of innovation among sports teachers.
Conclusion: The general conclusion of the research showed that by strengthening the leadership style among the managers, it is possible to help improve the organizational innovation among the teachers.
Keywords: Leadership style, organizational innovation, teacher.