عنوان مقاله [English]
Study and Identification of the Chemistry Teacher Students in the Science Education Department of Farhangian University About Some Concepts of Physical Chemistry
Seyed Mohammad Hasan Sharifian*: Phd student of Physical Chemistry Department, Shahid Madani University of Azerbaijan, Tabriz, Iran.
Jaber jahanbeyn sardorodi: Professor of Physical Chemistry Department, Shahid Madani University of Azerbaijan, Tabriz, Iran.
Massoud Saadati: Assistant Professor, Department of Basic Sciences, Farhangian University, Allameh Amini Campus, Tabriz, Iran
Introduction: The present study was conducted in order to study the level of understanding of the first and second year student teachers in the chemistry education department of Farhangian University of East Azarbaijan about some basic concepts of thermodynamics and chemical kinetics and to extract the misunderstandings among them.
Materials and methods: The statistical population of the research was student teachers in the field of chemistry education and the method of data collection was a researcher-made questionnaire containing a number of questions about the intended concepts, whose validity and reliability were checked and confirmed.
Results and discussion: Teachers' answers to students' questions are related to their understanding of scientific concepts, and teachers' answers are also effective on students' understanding of those concepts. Because children have different initial ideas based on their previous experiences, which include false preconceptions or correct ideas, if they are properly guided, they can change their false preconceptions in new ways that It is right to rebuild. But if they are not properly guided, their mental preconceptions are reconstructed and turn into new alternative ideas that we call misunderstandings (Kambori, 2016). It has been found that overcoming students' misunderstandings requires effective teaching strategies. Teachers have an important role in these strategies, so their understanding of scientific concepts is very important. The studies that have been conducted on teachers' and student teachers' understanding of some scientific concepts in several different countries, including in Iran, have shown that sometimes teachers actually have the same misunderstandings as students (Bayrakdar, 2009, Saadati , 2018). The teacher's role is also important because teachers must connect the concepts and make a connection between the concepts and the daily life of the students. In other words, they should translate the scientific information to the students' level of understanding without them facing the exact scientific meaning of the information. In addition, in the process of building knowledge, teachers can correctly and effectively recognize students' misunderstandings and guide their students correctly. The requirement for this work is that the teachers themselves should not have these misunderstandings. On the other hand, due to the impact of students' mental preconceptions on subsequent learning and on the interpretation of their new knowledge, it may make it difficult or impossible to understand new knowledge. These perceptions should be taken into consideration whether they were obtained before formal education or during formal education. Teachers can increase the possibility of replacing misunderstanding with accurate understanding of scientific concepts by creating a connection between existing knowledge and new knowledge of students. Therefore, in teacher training courses, student teachers' misunderstandings and their possible misunderstandings should be identified (Kanpolat et al., 2006). There are many researches that have investigated students' misunderstandings about scientific phenomena. However, less research has been done to identify teachers' misunderstandings, but the results of studies comparing the level of understanding of student teachers and students show that although student teachers have fewer wrong answers in comparison. presented with high school students, they maintain a high level of alternative concepts that are usually present among middle school students, and sometimes certain alternative concepts are more common among student teachers (axe and ton, 2011). For this reason, researchers from different countries are interested in studying student teachers' understanding of science concepts. In international scientific sources related to chemistry education, several studies have focused on students' misconceptions about thermodynamics (including chemical equilibrium) and chemical kinetics (Bark et al., 2009 and references therein). The learning problems of chemistry students in Ethiopia have been investigated using open-ended questionnaires including 17 questions and semi-structured interviews designed on the basic concepts of chemical thermodynamics. Research findings show that chemical thermodynamics is a subject full of conceptual problems and alternative concepts for students, and most of them lack basic understanding of thermodynamic concepts.
The results confirm the initial hypotheses based on similar studies conducted in other countries and within the country. According to the findings of this research, it was found that a large part of the student teachers have problems in understanding the various concepts of the physical chemistry course examined in this research and have misunderstandings similar to those mentioned in the background of the research. Of course, the prevalence of student teachers' misunderstandings is not the same in all cases. It was unexpected that some chemistry students were not able to use almost clear knowledge such as the number of molecules in standard volumes of ideal gases, which is part of the basic curriculum in secondary school. Some students could not determine whether an assignment belonged to thermodynamics or chemical kinetics. They tried to use thermodynamic reasoning to solve kinetic problems or vice versa. Some results showed that even if the students knew the relevant knowledge well (such as gas mixture or definition of enthalpy of formation), they could not apply this knowledge to a given problem. The repetition of the wrong perception by all the student teachers participating in the research about the role of temperature in the reaction speed, which is caused by the induction of textbooks, can be considered, and it is necessary to make the necessary principles in textbooks about this and similar cases. This case is particularly prominent in Iranian textbooks and should be corrected. By looking at the type of misunderstandings observed and comparing it with the misunderstandings reported in scientific sources, it is clear that some misunderstandings have been similarly reported in other researches, but others are specific to this research and are not in any No other source is mentioned. Based on this, it can be said that although some misunderstandings are observed in the same way among countries regardless of the culture and nationality of the learners, some others are specific to regions and cultures and can be seen especially only in those regions or limited regions. be. The reason for this can be seen in cultural differences, language differences, differences in teachers, differences in teaching methods in different countries and regions. What is important in summarizing the conclusion section is that the professors of Farhangian University should be aware enough about the possible misinterpretations of the subject of the courses in order to reduce the possibility of misunderstanding among student teachers. The introduction of definitions should always be followed by showing applications to specific problems and discussing common misunderstandings. Active learning methods based on constructivism theory should be used more. These measures will definitely lead to better and more effective teaching of physical chemistry and other chemistry courses. Therefore, the introduction of definitions along with showing applications on specific issues and discussing common misunderstandings is the suggestion of the current research to prevent students' misconceptions.
Conclusion: The general conclusion of the research showed that there should be enough vigilance about the possible misinterpretations of student teachers to reduce the possibility of misunderstanding. Introducing definitions along with showing applications on specific issues and discussing common misunderstandings is the suggestion of the current research to prevent students' misconceptions.
Keywords: Chemistry education, Thermodynamics, Kinetics, Teacher student.