عنوان مقاله [English]
Investigating the effectiveness of using the brainstorming teaching method on critical thinking (case study: 6th grade elementary school girls in Dashtestan)
Fatemeh Turkancharkh: MA of Curriculum Planning, Bushehr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bushehr, Iran.
Mohammad Behroozi *: Assistant Professor, Department of Educational Sciences, Bushehr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bushehr, Iran.
Introduction: The current research was conducted with the aim of investigating the effectiveness of using the brainstorming teaching method on critical thinking (case study: 6th grade elementary school girls in Dashtestan).
Materials and methods: The present research method was semi-experimental. The statistical population of the present study was made up of 1259 sixth grade female students of Dashtestan city. The sample size of this research included 40 people, which was obtained through random cluster sampling. For this purpose, first, 2 schools were randomly selected from among the elementary schools of Dashtestan city, and then 20 people were randomly selected from each sixth grade school, and a total of 40 people were randomly selected (20 people from the control group and 20 people from the experimental group). It was selected among the students and after coordinating with the schools and providing the necessary explanations, the questionnaires were given to them to complete. In order to collect information, Fashion's critical thinking questionnaire (1990) was used.
Results and discussion: The present study sought to investigate the effectiveness of using the brainstorming teaching method on critical thinking (case study: 6th grade elementary school girls in Dashtestan). In order to answer this hypothesis, bivariate covariance analysis was used, and the results showed that the average score of the critical thinking variable in the experimental group subjects in the post-test stage is higher than the control group subjects, therefore, it can be said that the application of brainstorming teaching method It has improved the critical thinking of the subjects of the experimental group compared to the control group. Similar to these findings were obtained in the researches of Mirzavand (2018), Qaidi Assal (2013) and Cao (2019). Examining and explaining the hypothesis analysis showed that the application of the brainstorming teaching method is not a linear or step-by-step process, but the flexibility of critical thinking allows a person to understand the theories used, existing evidence, criteria or standards described, or the method. to judge the things used logically and in an argumentative way. In fact, by using the ability of critical thinking, a person will be able to determine the way of action and the type of belief that he should have by carefully examining complex and individual problems and issues. The cognitive principle of critical thinking is very impressive. The educational system plays an important role in strengthening the potential fields of creativity. One of the ways to build this field is to use creative teaching methods. One of the ways to strengthen the creative spirit in learners is brainstorming. Brainstorming shows useful functions in teaching and learning and facilitates communication between solutions and ideas. In brainstorming groups, participation increases, criticism and objections decrease, social support increases, and the ability of students to transfer information to solve the determined problem increases and improves. That is, the student can easily retrieve the information stored in his long-term memory and use it to solve the problem. Brainstorming teaching method helps divergent thinking and creative problem solving in practice. This method increases the social competence of the students and makes the students achieve a positive self-confidence. Teaching students with brainstorming method will increase their creativity in problem solving. It can be safely said that without self-confidence and without having enough social sufficiency and self-knowledge and without believing in our abilities to perform a specific action, we cannot successfully perform that action, whether it is emotional or cognitive. The application of the brainstorming teaching method means using the brain to attack a problem. Brainstorming is the implementation of a meeting method in which a group tries to find a solution for a particular problem by presenting all their ideas. In this way, you can first plan the topic, then ask all the students in the class to present ideas. In fact, instead of each group presenting and reviewing the idea separately, and at the end, the groups present the results of their work. The participation of all the students in the class was done as a group and started with the writing of ideas by a secretary on the blackboard, and other stages of the work, including brainstorming, classification and evaluation of ideas, are followed by the supervision of the teacher. Brainstorming method has been introduced by both education experts and creativity education experts as a method of teaching creative problem solving. On the other hand, brainstorming teaching method can be effective on students' critical thinking. Critical thinking is the most indicative basis of a person's personality, the desire to think and the ability to think critically. Critical thinking helps teachers in solving problems, making decisions in life situations and forming a stable identity and habit in a person. The more dynamic the society, the more critical thinkers are needed. Society always needs thinkers who have good judgment about the issues of their society and know when and how to use thinking skills in their society. Having critical thinking in society helps people to be informed citizens and freedom. to experience the real, therefore, critical thinking as a person's skills in interpretation, analysis, evaluation and identification of social phenomena is considered a powerful source in civil and political life.
Therefore, considering that the brainstorming teaching method helps the students' critical thinking, it is suggested that consensus meetings and counseling should be considered in schools to improve the students' critical thinking. Also, considering that in the brainstorming teaching method, different student groups are formed, for this reason, it is easier for students to solve various problems and receive the lesson material, so it is suggested that this issue be taken into consideration by teachers.
Conclusion: The general conclusion of the research showed that by strengthening the teaching method of brainstorming among students, it can help improve their critical thinking in schools.
Keywords: brainstorming teaching method, critical thinking, female students.