عنوان مقاله [English]
The effect of responsibility training based on Glaser's approach on the self-efficacy of female first secondary school students in Kaki city
Fatemeh Heydari Vahed: MA, Department of Psychology, Payam Noor University, Bushehr, Iran.
Seyed Younes Mohammadi yousefnejad*: Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Payam Noor University, Tehran, Iran.
Introduction: The present study was conducted with the aim of the effect of responsibility training based on Glaser's approach on the self-efficacy of first secondary school girls in Kaki city in the academic year of 2020-2021.
Materials and methods: The present research method was semi-experimental with a pre-test and post-test design with a control group. The statistical population of the present study included 512 female students of the first secondary school in Kaki city. The sample size of the research was 30 people by purposive sampling method. To collect data, responsibility training protocol based on Glasser's approach and Scherer's self-efficacy questionnaire (2004) were used. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance.
Results and discussion: The results of the research showed that accountability training based on Glaser's approach has increased the self-efficacy of experimental group subjects compared to the control group, which shows the positive effect that accountability training based on Glaser's approach has on self-efficacy in experimental group subjects compared to The group has evidence, so self-awareness skill training explains 25.5% of the variance of self-efficacy.
Similar to these findings were obtained in the researches of Asanaeshri (2017), Bringer (2019), Toledano (2019) and Pandey (2019). Examining and explaining the above hypothesis shows that accountability training based on Glaser's approach is one of the educational methods that can affect students' self-efficacy. Individual and personal responsibility means that the student is responsible for his behavior, which includes thoughts, choices, decisions, words and actions (Bois, 2016). Social responsibility also includes accountability, proactiveness, ability to perform duties, dependability, reliability, ability to make moral decisions, competence, benefit from logical thinking, etc. In fact, in personal responsibility, the rays of doing this responsible act are related to the person and his personal life, and in social responsibility, the benefits of doing this responsible behavior will reach the society, the general public, and everyone. Responsibility training based on Glaser's approach is one of the educational methods that can affect the level of self-efficacy of students. Whenever a person undertakes to do something, he actually accepts the responsibility of doing that work. Every person has tasks on his shoulders from different perspectives or in other words he has a responsibility. Since students are in contact with different levels, including communication with their creator, social communication and environmental communication, the type of responsibility is also different, so responsibility in adolescence is one of the basic and important concepts. Responsibility means that students have the ability to undertake a task and be responsible for it. The sense of responsibility exists in all children and students, more or less, and the extent to which this sense can be strengthened in them depends on their living environment and surroundings. Being responsible makes doing things better and more correctly. Responsible students are more reliable because they are accountable, and gaining the trust of others is one of the important areas of progress. Responsibility along with accepting bigger responsibilities (provided that the person has the necessary and sufficient conditions for the relevant affairs) is an important factor to accelerate the process of individual and social progress. This feature increases a person's social credibility in any profession or job. One of the variables that is influenced by self-awareness training and can have an effective role on students' lives is self-efficacy. Students with high self-efficacy usually show better performance in four areas of performance, i.e. choosing goals, effort and persistence, the amount of learning and performance review, reaction to failure and failure. Researchers believe that family, peers and school play a big role as effective environments in the formation of self-efficacy beliefs. The first natural environment that affects self-efficacy is the family, because the family is the first social unit where people's needs are met. The family plays a significant role in acquiring the skills to face the challenges of life by raising the individual in different ways. Creating a sense of responsibility in students has an important role in their future career, education and personal life, which should be strengthened in students from the elementary and primary school days. Today's children and students are the makers of the future and responsible for the future of the country, if we do not properly inculcate responsibility in them, the future of the country will undoubtedly be confused, and instead of accepting the rightness and wrongness of their responsibility, people will look for the culprit rather than their own work. justify and shirk the burden of responsibility. In the first step, families and teachers should get an approximate knowledge of the student's temperament and tastes, and then according to that knowledge, give him responsibility and hold them accountable within the framework of the responsibility given to them. The arrangement not only to some extent strengthens the spirit of responsibility in students but also gives them a sense of pride and personality. One of the variables that can have an effective role on students' lives is self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is different according to students' feelings of thinking and action. Self-efficacy is generally considered domain-specific, meaning that students can have relatively strong self-beliefs in different areas and domains or specific performance situations. Self-efficacy is a constructive ability by which human cognitive, social, emotional and behavioral skills are effectively organized to achieve different goals. People's previous knowledge, skills, and achievements are not good predictors for people's future performance, rather, people's belief about their abilities to do them is effective on how they perform. There is a clear difference between having different skills and being able to combine them in appropriate ways to perform tasks in different situations. People know very well what tasks they need to perform and have the necessary skills to perform the tasks, but they often fail to execute the skills properly. Therefore, in the discussion of research proposals, it should be stated that this research may be an incentive for families and counseling centers to consider responsibility training based on Glaser's approach in the form of complementary programs along with other treatments for students. and observe the very positive effects of this training in improving students' self-efficacy and thus provide an equal opportunity to improve students' skills.
Conclusion: The general conclusion of the research showed that by strengthening responsibility training among female students, it can be greatly helped to improve their self-efficacy in schools.
Keywords: responsibility training, self-efficacy, female students.