عنوان مقاله [English]
Investigating the effect of Montessori education on the creative thinking of working children in Tehran
Morteza Andalib Koraim*: Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities, Islamic Azad University, Varamin-Pishva Branch, Varamin, Iran.
Maedeh Rafizadeh: Master's student in the Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities, Islamic Azad University, Varamin-Pishva branch, Varamin, Iran.
Farzaneh Jafari Serizi: Master's student in the Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities, Islamic Azad University, Varamin-Pishva branch, Varamin, Iran.
Parisa Larijani: Master's student in the Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities, Islamic Azad University, Varamin-Pishva branch, Varamin, Iran.
Hadi Tayibi: Master's student in the Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities, Islamic Azad University, Varamin-Pishva branch, Varamin, Iran.
Samira Rodger: Master's student in the Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities, Islamic Azad University, Varamin-Pishva branch, Varamin, Iran.
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Montessori education on the creative thinking of working children in Tehran.
Materials and methods: This research is in the category of quasi-experimental intervention researches, pre-test, post-test with control group. The statistical population of this research was made up of working children in one of the charity centers supporting children in the 12th district of Tehran in 1402. The statistical sample includes 40 working children who were selected based on the available random method from the statistical population and were divided into 2 experimental and control groups of 20 people. The data collection tool in this research was Torrance Visual Creativity Test Form "B" and the Montessori educational program was used to teach children.
Results and discussion: According to the results obtained from the average creative thinking test of children trained in the Montessori method in the fluid scales, the flexibility and development of the scores in the experimental group was evident, and no significant difference was observed in the initiative scale between the two groups. The obtained result is consistent with the results of Milgram (1981), Patamaei (2006), Lillard (2012), Erwin et al. (2010) and Adair (1995). Also, the result of the current research with the results of Ganji et al. (2014), Shahni Yilaq et al. And they confirm the flourishing of creativity of students and novices, it is aligned.
In the meaningful explanation of the results in terms of flexibility, it should be said that according to Montessori, if a child feels that the level of his activities is in harmony with his inner needs, he will naturally be able to reveal himself, and this characteristic will expand in him so much that even from The requirements of its growth also go beyond. Gilford also points out that flexibility allows for the design of new patterns of thinking and emphasizes the diversity of ideas. According to the conducted research and the ready results in terms of flexibility, it can be said that using the Montessori educational method develops the ability of working children to change their way of thinking when problems change shape or are raised from another dimension. data and face issues and problems. As a result, the child searches for compatibility, harmony and agreement with human beings of the same type and level and succeeds in this task (Montessori, 2007).
In explaining the results of the absence of a significant difference in the dimension of innovation, it can be said that creativity exists innately in all people, and its emergence in a proper way requires proper cultivation. This happens in Montessori classes for children. Due to his excessive attention to children, Montessori provided equipment to increase creativity in children, because the level of creativity decreases with age, so in childhood, by teaching methods to activate creativity, it can be done in the years to come. There were more creative adults in the community. But on the other hand, only the presence of children in the control group in the experiment created motivation in the aspect of creativity, and this caused the creative thinking of the children to be encouraged, and this made the children enjoy doing their work and feel better. In all the components of creativity, the point that is noticeable is presenting ideas in a new, unique and non-repetitive way, in a way, allowing the mind to break the rules and from an angle so that children understand and receive themselves with an open mind and no framework. from class exercises and expression environment and to see and learn everything from an unusual angle. In terms of the significance of the difference in the expansion dimension, it should be said that Guilford considers expansion as the ability to pay attention to details while performing an activity. In his opinion, the expanded thought deals with all the necessary details for a plan and does not miss anything. Thinking increases students' sensitivity to all the details necessary to solve a problem or idea. Similarly, Montessori believes that it is this sensitivity that forces the child to communicate with the outside world in a special way.
In explaining the results in the fluidity dimension, it should be said that according to Montessori's organized theory in the field of sensory education, by regularly presenting sensory effects to children, light to dark shadows, low to high notes, hard to smooth boards, etc. Hand suggests that sudden impressions of real-world stimuli have an organized neural system in which they can be recorded, and given the hierarchical nature of neural organization, it is possible that organization at lower sensory levels feeds organization at higher levels. (Lillard, 2012) and considering that fluid intelligence is the ability to understand relationships, independent of previous experience or instructions regarding it (Lillard, 2019), therefore, the interventional training of this research has shown its positive effects on working children.
Due to the fact that the statistical population of the current research is the working children of Tehran city, caution should be exercised in generalizing the findings to children in other age groups. Therefore, it is suggested: in order to increase the creativity of working children in Tehran, instead of using lecture methods and theoretical discussions, they should rely more on working with the necessary and sufficient tools, facilities and equipment and also provide the children with the necessary opportunities to use them. Educators and assistants of support organizations should make children the main focus of their learning and teaching in order to increase students' creativity (child-centered). Any kind of education without the active participation of children is fruitless. Also, support centers such as welfare and charities should be equipped with tools and equipment of appropriate sizes and in harmony with the physical structure of children, so that they become the basis for the increase of creative motivation in them.
Conclusion: In order to increase the creativity of working children in Tehran, instead of using lecture methods and theoretical discussions, they should rely more on working with necessary and sufficient tools, facilities and equipment and provide the necessary opportunities for children to use them.
Keywords: Montessori education, creative thinking, working children.